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Townsend, C., & Rheingold, A.A., (2013). Estimating a child sexual abuse prevalence rate for practitioners: studies. Charleston, S.C., Darkness to Light. Retrieved from www.D2L.org.


Townsend, C. (2013). Prevalence and consequences of child sexual abuse compared with other childhood experiences. Charleston, S.C., Darkness to Light. Retrieved from www.D2L.org.


Sedlak, A.J., Mettenburg, J., Basena, M., Petta, I., McPherson, K., Greene, A., and Li, S. (2010). Fourth National Incidence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect (NIS–4): Report to Congress, Executive Summary. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families.


Finkelhor, D., & Jones, L. (2012). Have sexual abuse and physical abuse declined since the 1990s? Durham, NH: Crimes against Children Research Center. http://www.unh.edu/ccrc/pdf/CV267_Have%20SA%20%20PA%20Decline_FACT%20SHEET_11-7-12.pdf


London, K., Bruck, M., Ceci, S., & Shuman, D. (2003) Disclosure of child sexual abuse: What does the research tell us about the ways that children tell? Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 11(1), 194-226.


Ullman, S. E. (2007). Relationship to perpetrator, disclosure, social reactions, and PTSD symptoms in child sexual abuse survivors. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 16(1), 19-36.


Broman-Fulks, J. J., Ruggiero, K. J., Hanson, R. F., Smith, D. W., Resnick, H. S., Kilpatrick, D. G., & Saunders, B. E. (2007). Sexual assault disclosure in relation to adolescent mental health: Results from the National Survey of Adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 36, 260 – 266.


Smith, D. W., Letourneau, E. J., Saunders, B. E., Kilpatrick, D. G., Resnick, H. S., & Best, C. L. (2000). Delay in disclosure of childhood rape: Results from a national survey. Child Abuse & Neglect, 24, 273 – 287.


Snyder, H. N. (2000). Sexual assault of young children as reported to law enforcement: Victim, incident, and offender characteristics. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics. Retrieved January 12, 2009 from http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/pdf/saycrle.pdf


National Crime Victimization Survey, Statistic calculated by staff at Crimes against Children Research Center. 2002.


Greenfeld, L.A. (1997). Sex Offenses and Offenders An Analysis of Data on Rape and Sexual Assault. U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics, NCJ-163392


Finkelhor, D. (2012). Characteristics of crimes against juveniles. Durham, NH: Crimes against Children Research Center.


Whealin, J. (2007-05-22). “Child Sexual Abuse”. National Center for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, US Department of Veterans Affairs.


Finkelhor, D., Ormrod,R., Chaffin, M. (2009) Juveniles who commit sex offenses against minors. Juvenile Justice Bulletin, OJJDP, Office of Justice Programs


Jenny, Carole, Roesler, Thomas A. , Poyer, Kimberly L. (1994) Are children at risk for sexual abuse by homosexuals? Pediatrics, Vol. 94 No. 1, pp. 41-44.


Abel, G. G., Mittleman, M. S., & Becker, J. V. (1985). "Sex offenders: Results of assessment and recommendations for treatment." In M. H. Ben-Aron, S. J. Hucker, & C. D. Webster (Eds.), Clinical Criminology: The assessment and treatment of criminal behavior (pp. 207–220).


Elliott, M., Browne, K., & Kilcoyne, J. (1995). Child sexual abuse prevention: What offenders tell us. Child Abuse & Neglect, 5, 579-594.


Wolak, J., Finkelhor, D., Mitchell, K. (2006). Trends in arrests of online predators. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Report. Crimes Against Children Research Center, University of New Hampshire.


Jones, L,. Mitchell, K., Finkelhor, D. (2012). Trends in youth internet victimization: Findings from three youth internet safety surveys 2000–2010, Journal of Adolescent Health 50: 179–186.


Wolak, J., Finkelhor, D., Mitchell, K., Ybarra, M.  (2008) “ Online “Predators” and their Victims:  Myths, Realities and Implications for Prevention and Treatment” published by  American Psychologist, 63(2), 111-128


National Institute of Justice. (2007). Commercial sexual exploitation of children: What do we know and what do we do about it? (Publication NCJ 215733). US Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs.


Walker, E.A. Gelfand, A., Katon, W.J., Koss, M.P, Con Korff, M., Bernstien, D., et al. (1999). Medical and psychiatric symptoms in women with children and sexual abuse. Psychosomatic Medicine, 54, 658-664.


Kilpatrick, D. G., Ruggiero, K. J., Acierno, R., Saunders, B. E., Resnick, H. S., & Best, C. L. (2003). Violence and risk of PTSD, major depression, substance abuse/dependence, and comorbidity: Results from the National Survey of Adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 692-700.


Finkelhor, D., Ormrod, R., Turner, H. A., & Hamby, S. L. (2012). Child and youth victimization known to school, police, and medical officials in a national sample of children and youth. Juvenile Justice Bulletin, (No. NCJ 235394). Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.


Kenny, M.C. (2004). Teachers’ attitudes toward and knowledge of child maltreatment. Child Abuse and Neglect, 28, 1311-1319.


Everson, M., and Boat, B. (1989). False allegations of sexual abuse by children and adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 28, 2:230-35.


Walsh, W.A., Jones, L., Cross, T.P., Lippert,T. (2008). Prosecuting child sexual abuse: The importance of evidence type. Crime Delinquency OnlineFirst, doi:10.1177/0011128708320484


Grossman, L. , Martis, B., Fichtner, C. (1999). Are sex offenders treatable? A research overview. Psychiatric Services 50 (3): 349–361


Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers (ATSA). (2000). The effective legal management of juvenile sex offender. Retrieved from www.atsa.com/ppjuvenile.html


Finkelhor, D. (1994). Current information on the scope and nature of child sexual abuse. The Future of Children, Vol. 4, No. 2, Sexual Abuse of Children, pp. 31-53


Putnam, F. (2003). Ten-year research update review: Child sexual abuse. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 42 , 269-278.


Finkelhor, D., Ormrod, R.K. & Turner, H.A. (2010). Poly-victimization in a national sample of children & youth. American Journal of Preventive Medicine.


Prevent Child Abuse America (2003). Recognizing child abuse: What parents should know. Chicago, IL. Retrieved 5-31-2013 from www.preventchildabuse.org.


Stop It Now! (2013) Warning signs in children and adolescents of possible child sexual abuse. Northampton, MA. Retrieved 5-31-2013 from www.stopitnow.org


Saunders, B.E., Kilpatrick, D.G., Hanson, R.F., Resnick, H.S., & Walker, M. E. (1999). Prevalence, case characteristics, and long-term psychological correlates of child rape among women: A national survey. Child Maltreatment, 4, 187-200.


Grayson, J. (2006). Maltreatment and its effects on early brain development. Virginia Child Protection Newsletter, 77, 1-16.


Leeb, R., Lewis, T., & Zolotor, A. J. (2011). A review of physical and mental health consequences of child abuse and neglect and implications for practice. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, 5(5), 454-468.


Friedrich, W.N., Fisher, J. L., Dittner, C.A., Acton, R, Berliner, L, Butler, J., Damon, L., Davies, W.H., Gray, A. & Wright, J. (2001). Child Sexual Behavior Inventory: Normative, psychiatric, and sexual abuse comparisons. Child Maltreatment, 6, 37-49.


McLeer, S. V., Dixon, J. F., Henry, D., Ruggiero, K., Escovitz, K., Niedda, T., & Scholle, R. (1998). Psychopathology in non-clinically referred sexually abused children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 37, 1326 – 1333.


Noll, J. G., Shenk, C. E., & Putnam, K. T. (2009). Childhood sexual abuse and adolescent pregnancy: A meta-analytic update. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 34, 366-378. 


Olafson, E. (2011). Child sexual abuse: Demography, impact, and interventions. Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma, 4(1), 8-21.


Banyard, V. L., Williams, L. M., & Siegel, J. A. (2001). The long-term mental health consequences of child sexual abuse: An exploratory study of the impact of multiple traumas in a sample of women. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 14, 697 – 715.


Molnar, B. E., Buka, S. L., & Kessler, R. C. (2001). Child sexual abuse and subsequent psychopathology: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey. American Journal of Public Health, 91, 753 – 760.


Polusny, M. A., & Follette, V. M. (1995). Long-term correlates of child sexual abuse: theory and review of the empirical literature. Applied and Preventive Psychology, 4, 143 – 166.


Young, M. S., Harford, K., Kinder, B., & Savell, J. K. (2007). The relationship between childhood sexual abuse and adult mental health among undergraduates: Victim gender doesn’t matter. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 22, 1315 – 1331.


Girardet, R. G., Lahoti, S., Howard, L. A., Fajman, N. N., Sawyer, M. K., Driebe, E. M., et al. (2009). Epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections in suspected child victims of sexual assault. Pediatrics, 124, 79-84.


Acierno, R., Kilpatrick, D. G., Resnick, H. S., Saunders, B., de Arellano, M. & Best, C. (2000). Assault, PTSD, family substance use, and depression as risk factors for cigarette use in youth: Findings from the national survey of adolescents. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 13, 381-396.


Felitti, V.J., Anda, R.F., Nordenberg, D., Williamson, D., Spitz, A.M., Edwards, V., Koss, M., Marks, J.S., (1998) Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults: The adverse childhood experiences (ACE) study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 14(4).


Lanier, P., Jonson-Reid, M., Stahlschmidt, M. J., Drake, B., & Constantino, J. (2010). Child maltreatment and pediatric health outcomes: A longitudinal study of low-income children. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 35(5), 511-522.


Mullers, E. S., & Dowling, M. (2008). Mental health consequences of child sexual abuse. British Journal of Nursing, 17(22), 1428-1433.


De Bellis, M. D., Spratt, E. G., & Hooper, S. R. (2011). Neurodevelopmental biology associated with childhood sexual abuse. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 20(5), 548-587.


Cohen, E., Groves, B., & Kracke, K. (2009). Understanding children’s exposure to violence. The Safe Start Center Series on Children Exposed to Violence, 1, 1-8.


Tebbutt, J., Swanston, H., Oates, R. K., O'Toole, B.I. (1997). Five years after child sexual abuse: Persisting dysfunction and problems of prediction. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 330-339.


Noll, J.G., Trickett, P.K., & Putnam, F.W. (2003). A prospective investigation of the impact of childhood sexual abuse on the development of sexuality. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 575-586.


Paolucci, E.O, Genuis, M.L, & Violato, C. (2001). A meta-analysis of the published research on the effects of child sexual abuse. Journal of Psychology, 135, 17-36.


Kellogg, N.D., Hoffman, T.J, & Taylor, E.R. (1999). Early sexual experience among pregnant and parenting adolescents. Adolescence, 43, 293-303.


Moran, P. B., Vuchinich, S., & Hall, N. K. (2004). Associations between types of maltreatment and substance use during adolescence. Child Abuse and Neglect, 28(5), 565–574. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2003.12.002


Finkelhor, D., & Ormrod, R. K. (1999). Reporting crimes against juveniles. Juvenile Justice Bulletin, (No. NCJ 178887). Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.


Saewyc, E.M., Magee, L.L., & Pettingall, S.E. (2004). Teenage pregnancy and associated risk behavior among sexually abused adolescents. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health , 36(3), 98-105.


Wells, R., McCann, J., Adams, J., Voris, J., & Dahl, B. (1997). A validational study of the structured interview of symptoms associated with sexual abuse using three samples of sexually abused, allegedly abused, and nonabused boys. Child Abuse & Neglect, 21, 1159-1167.


Reyome, N.D. (1994). Teacher ratings of the academic achievement related classroom behaviors of maltreated and non-maltreated children. Psychology in the Schools, 31, 253-260


Daignault, I.V. & Hebert, M. (2009). Profiles of school adaptation: Social, behavioral, and academic functioning in sexually abused girls. Child Abuse & Neglect, 33, 102-115.


Rice, D. P., & Miller, L. S. (1996). The economic burden of schizophrenia: Conceptual and methodological issues, and cost estimates. In M. Moscarelli, A. Rupp, & N. Sartorious (Eds.), Handbook of mental health economics and health policy. Vol. 1: Schizophrenia (pp. 321–324). New York: John Wiley and Sons.


Briere, J., & Elliott, D.M. (2003). Prevalence and psychological sequelae of self-reported childhood physical and sexual abuse in a general population sample of men and women. Child Abuse & Neglect, 27(10), 1205-1222.


Harrison, P. A., & Narayan, G. (2003). Differences in behavior, psychological factors, and environmental factors associated with participation in school sports and other activities in adolescence. Journal of School Health, 73(3), 113–120. doi:10.1111/j.1946-1561.2003.tb03585


Siegal, J.A. & Williams, L.M. (2003). The relationship between child sexual abuse and female delinquency and crime: A prospective study. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 40, 71-94.


Widom, C.S. & Maxfield, M.G. (2001). An update on the “cycle of violence.” Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice. National Institute of Justice.


Cyr, M., McDu_, P., & Wright, J. (2006). Prevalence and predictions of dating violence among adolescent female victims of child sexual abuse. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 21(8), 1000-1017.


Yates, T. M. (2004). The developmental psychopathology of self-injurious behavior: Compensatory regulation in posttraumatic adaptation. Clinical Psychology Review, 24(1), 35-74.


Douglas, E., & Finkelhor, D. (2005). Childhood Sexual Abuse Fact Sheet. Crimes Against Children Center, University of New Hampshire. http://www.unh.edu/ccrc/factsheet/pdf/CSA-FS20.pdf


Carter, C. A., Bottoms, B. L., & Levine, M. (1996). Linguistic and socioemotional influences on the accuracy of children’s reports. Law and Human Behavior, 20(3), 335-358.


Herrenkohl, E. C., Herrenkohl, R. C., Egolf, B. P., & Russo, M. J. (1998). The relationship between early maltreatment and teenage parenthood. Journal of Adolescence, 21, 291-303.


Raj, A., Silverman, J. G., & Amaro, H. (2000). The relationship between sexual abuse and sexual risk among high school students: Findings from the 1997 Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Maternal & Child Health Journal, 4(2), 125-134.


Simpson, T.L. & Miller, W.R. (2002). Concomitance between childhood sexual and physical abuse and substance use problems: A review. Clinical Psychology Review, 22, 27-77.


Rohde, P., Ichikawa, L., Simon, G. E., Ludman, E. J., Linde, J. A. Jeffery, R. W., & Operskalski, B. H. (2008). Associations of child sexual and physical abuse with obesity and depression in middle-aged women. Child Abuse & Neglect, 32, 878–887.


Dube, S. A., Anda, R. F., Whitfield, C. L., Brown, D. W., Felitti, D. J., Dong, M., & Giles, W. (2005). Long-term consequences of childhood sexual abuse by gender of the victim. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 28, 430 – 437.


Waldrop, A. E. Hanson, R. F., Resnick, H. S., Kilpatrick, D. G., Naugle, A. E., & Saunders, B. E. (2007). Risk factors for suicidal behavior among a national sample of adolescents: Implications for prevention. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 20, 869 – 879.


Day, A., Thurlow, K., & Woolliscroft, J. (2003). Working with childhood sexual abuse: A survey of mental health professionals.Child Abuse & Neglect, 27 , 191-198.


Kendler, K., Bulik, C., Silberg, J., Hettema, J., Myers, J., & Prescott, C. (2000). Childhood sexual abuse and adult psychiatric and substance use disorders in women: An epidemiological and Cotwin Control Analysis. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 953-959.


Voeltanz, N., Wilsnack, S., Harris, R., Wilsnack, R., Wonderlich, S., Kristjanson, A. (1999). Prevalence and risk for childhood sexual abuse in women : National survey findings. Child Abuse and Neglect, 23, 579-592.


Walrath, C., Ybarra, M., Holden, W., Liao, Q., Santiago, R., & Leaf, R. (2003). Children with reported histories of sexual abuse: Utilizing multiple perspectives to understand clinical and psychological profiles. Child Abuse & Neglect, 27, 509-524.


Fuemmeler, B. F., Dedert, E., McClernon, F. J., & Beckham, J. C. (2009). Adverse childhood events are associated with obesity and disordered eating: Results from a U.S. population-based survey of young adults. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 22, 329 – 333.


Arnow, B. A. (2004). Relationships between childhood maltreatment, adult health and psychiatric outcomes, and medical utilization. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 65 [suppl 12], 10 – 15.


Sachs-Ericsson, N., Blazer, D., Plant, E. A., & Arnow, B. (2005). Childhood sexual and physical abuse and 1-year prevalence of medical problems in the National Comorbidity Survey. Health Psychology, 24, 32 – 40.


Golding, J. M., Cooper, M. L., & George, L. K. (1997). Sexual assault history and health perceptions: Seven general population studies. Health Psychology, 16, 417 – 425.


Newman, M. G., Clayton, L., Zuellig, A., Cashman, L., Arnow, B., Dea, R., & Taylor, C. B. (2000). The relationship of childhood sexual abuse and depression with somatic symptoms and medical utilization. Psychological Medicine, 30, 1063 – 1077.


Walker, E. A., Keegan, D., Gardner, G., Sullivan, M., Bernstein, D. & Katon, W. J. (1997). Psychosocial factors in fibromyalgia compared with rheumatoid arthritis: II. Sexual, physical, and emotional abuse and neglect. Psychosomatic Medicine, 59, 572 – 577.


Finkelhor, D., & Ormrod, R. (2001). Child Abuse Reported to the Police. Juvenile Justice Bulletin, (No. NCJ 187238). Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.


Golding, J. M. (1996). Sexual assault history and women’s reproductive and sexual health. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 20, 101 – 121.


Wilson, H. & Widom, C.S. (2009). An examination of risky sexual behavior and HIV among victims of child abuse and neglect: A thirty-year follow-up. Health Psychology, 27, 149-158


Dekker, A. et. al. (1990). The incidence of sexual abuse in HIV infected adolescents and young adults. Journal of Adolescent Health Care. vol. 11, no. 3.


Fang, X., Brown, D., Florence, C., Mercy, J. (2012) The economic burden of child maltreatment in the United States and implications for prevention. Child Abuse & Neglect, 36:2,156–165